US Ticker: QTMM
QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGIES
Quantum Dots: Man-Made Molecule
Quantum dots refer to one of several promising materials niche sectors that recently have emerged from the burgeoning growth area of nanotechnology. Quantum dots fall into the category of nanocrystals, which also includes quantum rods and nanowires. As a materials subset, quantum dots are characterized by particles fabricated to the smallest of dimensions from only a few atoms and upwards. At these tiny dimensions, they behave according to the rules of quantum physics, which describe the behavior of atoms and sub atomic particles, in contrast to classical physics that describes the behavior of bulk materials, or in other words, objects consisting of many atoms.
Quantum Dots measure near one billionth of an inch and are a non-traditional type of semiconductor. They can be used as an enabling material across many industries and are unparalleled in versatility and flexible in form.
These highly efficient tetrapod QD are available across the entire light wavelength from UV to IR spectra and very narrow bandwidth is common. Selectivity of arm width and length is very high allowing different characteristics to be emphasized. Capping with shells and dyes adds desired properties. A custom mixture of quantum dots tuned to optimal wavelengths is easy to create, and projects will have the advantage of unprecedented flexibility and quantities for determining the optimal quantum dot without the time, expense and poor quality of batch synthesis methods.
Rice University Quantum Dot Synthesis
Dr. Michael S. Wong’s lab at William Marsh Rice University invented a simplified synthesis using greener fluids in a moderate temperature process producing same-sized QD particles, in which more than 95 percent are tetrapods; where previously even in the best recipe less than 50 percent of the prepared particles were all same size and tetrapods. These highly efficient tetrapod QD are available across the entire light wavelength from UV to IR spectra and very narrow bandwidth is common. Selectivity of arm width and length is very high allowing different characteristics to be emphasized. Capping with shells and dyes adds desired properties. A custom mixture of quantum dots tuned to optimal wavelengths is easy to create, and projects will have the advantage of unprecedented flexibility and quantities for determining the optimal quantum dot without the time, expense and poor quality of batch synthesis methods.
Furthermore, the Rice process uses much cheaper raw materials and fewer purification steps. A positively charged molecule called cetyltrimethylammonium bromide provides this dramatic improvement in tetrapod manufacture. This compound, found in some shampoos, also is 100 times cheaper than alkylphosphonic acids currently used and is far safer, further simplifying the manufacturing process.
Continuous Flow QD Mass-Production
Continuous flow micro-reactor processing will enable us to scale up the manufacture to our goal of 100kg/day production without loss of quality. Through QMC research and development in conjunction with a leading continuous flow integrator, we have made improvements on the process which are an integral part of our intellectual property contributed to our Joint Venture and other partnerships. We will be the first to mass produce the highest quality quantum dots at the lowest cost on the market using readily available, non-REE materials.
The continuous flow micro-reactor maintains the synthesis process precise and narrow wavelength uniformity. The quality and quantity of our tetrapod quantum dots have exceeded our requirements and far exceed what is available on the market today. Due to the simplicity of our scale-up to mass production, we believe we could provide last year’s display industry’s total consumption of QD in one month’s production.
Both full-scale quantum dot manufacturing and quantum dot based thin-film photovoltaic solar panel facilities can be developed today with available technologies.
QD Nanotech Applications
Current and future applications of quantum dots impact a broad range of industrial markets. These include, for example, biology and biomedicine; computing and memory; electronics and displays; optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, lighting, and lasers; optical components used in telecommunications; and security applications such as covert identification tagging or biowarfare detection sensors. All of these markets can move from laboratory discovery to commercialization as QMC scales production of quantum dots to robust levels.
Quantum dots make improvements in the quality of marking in both brightness and time to study (hours instead of minutes).
Quantum dots have been used for lymph node mapping and vascular and deep tissue imaging. This use has the potential to be much more significant for disease control and cure than any other current pharmacological technology.
QD Printing Applications
Quantum Materials Corporation has the exclusive worldwide license to proprietary quantum dot printing technologies developed by Dr. Ghassan Jabbour This pioneering technology makes significant improvements over prior art.
Quantum Dot LED as well as nanoparticle LED / OLED based displays now have the potential to be manufactured using very high volume, low cost roll-to-roll print processing on inexpensive substrates. In addition to the potential to deliver a significantly lower price point, this technology can also provide, higher definition, increased viewing angles, lower power consumption and reduced response time for an enhanced picture, all in a very thin, light weight, format. These characteristics enable display technologies to flourish in environments that have previously been uneconomical or simply not viable.
Tetrapod quantum dots and printing technologies can be printed and applied to certain lighting applications delivering high brightness, true color balance, long life and low energy consumption for highest efficiency. As global consumption of electricity in the world is increasing dramatically, energy efficiency through better electronics and lighting is a key to reducing the overall burden on power production and the expected increases in greenhouse gas emissions.
Thermoelectric devices are not more ubiquitous because, simply stated, they are not efficient. The best materials in nature's arsenal are small bandgap semiconductors and semimetals, but they still do not enable the efficiencies required for a widespread technology adoption. Many researchers are working diligently on nanocomposite materials, such as quantum dots that artificially induce phonon scattering, thereby inhibiting heat transfer due to lattice vibrations while facilitating electron and hole conduction. Results to date have been promising, with improvements by up to 100% of the Zt coefficient (the basic thermoelectric figure of merit) being reported.
Quantum dots make an attractive opportunity to develop optical switches, modulators, and other devices that rely upon nonlinear optics. Quantum dot colloids can have strong transitions at the important 1310nm and 1550nm telecommunication bands that have been incorporated into or onto optical polymers, semiconductor polymers, microcavities, photonics crystals, and even semiconductor devices. Quantum dot nanocomposite materials and associated devices continue to be investigated by numerous researchers with the aim of creating faster, cheaper, and more powerful optical telecommunication components.
Inks and paints incorporating quantum dots, nanoscale semiconductor particles, can be tuned to emit light at specific wavelengths in the visible and infrared portion of the spectra. Ink and paint formulations can be created by combining multiple quantum dots and other pigments to create unique fluorescent spectral barcodes that identify any object or document when illuminated. The quantum dot based inks may be applied via conventional screen, flexography, offset, gravure, and ink jet printing processes while the paints are designed to be sprayed onto any surface.